Portable fluoroscopy machine

Source:  Portable fluoroscopy machine    Tag:  c arm radiation safety
Fluoroscopic (fluoroscopy)
An x-ray procedure that produces immediate images and motion on a screen. The images look like those seen at airport baggage security stations.the visual examination of a part of the body or the function of an organ with a fluoroscope. The technique offers continuous imaging of the motion of internal structures and immediate serial images. It is invaluable in many clinical procedures, such as intrauterine fetal transfusion and cardiac catheterization.Imaging An x-ray imaging technique used to evaluate moving pulmonary and cardiac structures, and help in needle localization of masses being biopsied Cons Fluoroscopy exposed Pts to more radiation than a standard film; small lesions can be overlooked, there is no permanent record.
Some means of recording images is a necessary part of most fluoroscopic systems. Several methods are available for recording images during fluoroscopy. Screen-film recording methods such as use of spot film devices and automatic film changers provide high-spatial-resolution images. Recording images by using the image intensifier (fluorography) provides film or digital images at relatively lower doses but with poorer spatial resolution. Digitally recorded images have better contrast resolution than analog images but lower spatial resolution and represent a compromise between dose and image quality. Motion picture (cine fluorographic) recording requires extremely high dose rates compared with those of lower-resolution videotape recording of motion. Recording systems in fluoroscopy require automatic exposure control for optimum image quality. The same feedback system used to control fluorographic exposures can be used to control exposure rates during fluoroscopy as well. Automatic brightness control maintains intensifier exposure rates on the basis of subject thickness by adjusting various technique factors. The type of control mechanism depends on the imaging task and the complexity (age and cost) of the equipment. The operator can choose between better image quality (higher contrast) or lower radiation dose.
Fluoroscopy is an essential tool for the endovascular surgeon. This manuscript will review the fundamentals of fluoroscopy for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and will focus on matters specific for thoracic aortic stent grafting. The following items will be discussed: types of fluoroscopy, preoperative use of fluoroscopy, positioning of patient, positioning of fluoroscopy for successful imaging, and obtaining the best imaging during stent grafting.

Fluoroscopic Equipment
The type of imaging equipment at institutions is variable. Most hospitals have a basic portable C-arm with a vascular package software and the more advanced institutions will have either floor or ceiling mounted C-arms which are fixed. These fixed units generally allow higher definition imaging and more facile movement of catheters and devices by allowing the operator to control both the imaging unit and bed position. However, regardless of the specific imaging system, the essentials of fluoroscopy are unchanged and successful TEVAR can be achieved with each system.

Describe the anatomical, physiological and pathological processes of different systems and organs to be demonstrated by contrast media.
• Understand indications and contraindications of all radiographic examinations performed under fluoroscopy.
Participate actively in fluoroscopic examinations.
• Describe the procedure of all under fluoroscopy examinations.
• Prepare patient, X-ray room, equipment, accessories for the radiographic examinations

Fluoroscopic Imaging Basics
The main preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in TEVAR procedures are complications related to access. These complications may be recognized or unrecognized at the time of surgery and include injury to the femoral arteries, the iliac arteries, and the aorta. The main tool to prevent these injuries is safe access and careful manipulation of guidewires, catheters, and sheaths under fluoroscopic guidance.

Fluoroscopy is used in several different methods. The passage of guidewires, catheters, and sheaths is performed under pulsed fluoroscopy which provides good resolution regarding positioning of the devices. Continuous fluoroscopy is used “to shoot” an arteriogram and is at a higher frame rate and resolution. A digital subtraction arteriography “DSA” is created by image software which first shoots a mask of the background objects, and subtracts the background and allows the column of contrast in the angiogram to be displayed without interference of the background. "Road mapping" permits real-time catheter guidance with a contrast background. Road mapping is established by digitally subtracting the initial non-contrast background, then contrast is injected into the vessel of interest and a new combined image of the contrast injection is superimposed on the real-time fluoroscopic image. All of these techniques are available with the most basic vascular package software on a portable C-arm unit.

endoscopy,angiography,image intensifier fluoroscopy,fluoroscopy machine,fluoroscopy equipment