Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists - 2nd edition

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This book is intended as a textbook for a radiation physics course in academic medical physics graduate programs as well as a reference book for candidates preparing for certification examinations in medical physics subspecialities. The book may also be of interest to many professionals, not only physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics or radiation physics and have a need or desire to improve their understanding ofradiation physics.

1 Introduction to Modern Physics 1

1.1 Fundamental Physical Constants 2

1.2 Derived Physical Constants and Relationships 4

1.3 Milestones in Modern Physics and Medical Physics 5

1.4 Physical Quantities and Units6

1.4.1 Rules Governing Physical Quantities and Units 6

1.4.2 The SI System of Units 6

1.4.3 Non-SI Units 8

1.5 Classification of Forces in Nature 8

1.6 Classification of Fundamental Particles 9

1.7 Classification of Radiation 9

1.8 Classification of Ionizing Radiation 10

1.8.1 Directly and Indirectly Ionizing Radiation 11

1.8.2 Low LET and High LET Radiation 11

1.8.3 Use of Ionizing Radiation 12

1.9 Classification of Directly Ionizing Radiation 13

1.9.1 Electrons 13

1.9.2 Positrons 14

1.9.3 Heavy Charged Particles 14

1.9.4 Pions 16

1.10 Classification of Indirectly Ionizing Photon Radiation 17

1.11 Radiation Quantities and Units 17

1.12 Dose Distribution in Water for Various Radiation Beams 18

1.12.1 Dose Distribution in Water for Photon Beams 21

1.12.2 Dose Distribution in Water for Neutron Beams 21

1.12.3 Dose Distribution in Water for Electron Beams 22

1.12.4 Dose Distribution in Water for Heavy Charged Particle Beams 23

1.12.5 Choice of Radiation Beam and Prescribed Target Dose 24

XXII Contents

1.13 Basic Definitions for Atomic Structure 25

1.13.1 Mean Atomic Mass (Standard Atomic Weight) 26

1.13.2 Unified Atomic Mass Unit and the Mole 27

1.13.3 Mean Molecular Mass (Standard Molecular Weight) 29

1.14 Basic Definitions for Nuclear Structure 30

1.15 Nuclear Binding Energies 31

1.16 Nuclear Models 33

1.16.1 Liquid-Drop Nuclear Model 33

1.16.2 Shell Structure Nuclear Model 34

1.17 Physics of Small Dimensions and Large Velocities 35

1.18 Planck Energy Quantization 35

1.19 Quantization of Electromagnetic Radiation 36

1.20 Special Theory of Relativity 37

1.21 Important Relativistic Relations 39

1.21.1 Relativistic Mass 39

1.21.2 Relativistic Force and Relativistic Acceleration 40

1.21.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy 41

1.21.4 Total Relativistic Energy as a Function of Momentum 43

1.21.5 Taylor Expansion and Classical Approximations for Kinetic Energy and Momentum44

1.21.6 Relativistic Doppler Shift 45

1.22 Particle–Wave Duality 45

1.22.1 De Broglie Equation and De Broglie Wavelength 46

1.22.2 Davisson–Germer Experiment 48

1.22.3 Thomson–Reid Experiment 49

1.22.4 General Confirmation of Particle – Wave Duality 50

1.23 Matter Waves51

1.23.1 Introduction to Wave Mechanics 51

1.23.2 Quantum Mechanical Wave Equation 52

1.23.3 Time-independent Schr¨odinger Equation 54

1.23.4 Measurable Quantities and Operators56

1.23.5 Transition Rate and the Fermi Second Golden Rule 57

1.23.6 Particle Scattering and Born Collision Formula 58

1.24 Uncertainty Principle 61

1.25 Complementarity Principle 62

1.26 Emission of Electrons from Material Surface: Work Function 63

1.27 Thermionic Emission 64

1.28 Tunneling 65

1.28.1 Alpha Decay Tunneling 66

1.28.2 Field Emission Tunneling 66

1.29 Maxwell Equations 67

1.30 Poynting Theorem and Poynting Vector 69

Contents XXIII

1.31 Normal Probability Distribution 71

1.31.1 Standard Probability Density Function 71

1.31.2 Cumulative Distribution Function 72

1.31.3 Error function 75

2 Coulomb Scattering 77

2.1 General Aspects of Coulomb Scattering 78

2.2 Geiger–Marsden Experiment 79

2.2.1 Thomson Model of the Atom 80

2.2.2 Rutherford Model of the Atom 82

2.3 Rutherford Scattering 83

2.3.1 Kinematics of Rutherford Scattering83

2.3.2 Distance of Closest Approach in Head-on Collision Between α-Particle and Nucleus 85

2.3.3 General Relationship between Impact Parameter and Scattering Angle 87

2.3.4 Hyperbolic Trajectory and Distance of Closest Approach 89

2.3.5 Hyperbola in Polar Coordinates 91

2.4 Cross Sections for Rutherford Scattering 91

2.4.1 Differential Cross-Section for Rutherford Scattering: Classical Derivation 91

2.4.2 Differential Cross Section for Rutherford Scattering (Quantum-Mechanical Derivation) 93

2.4.3 Screening of Nuclear Potential by Orbital Electrons 94

2.4.4 Minimum Scattering Angle 96

2.4.5 Effect of the Finite Size of the Nucleus 97

2.4.6 Maximum Scattering Angle 99

2.4.7 General Relationships for Differential Cross Section in Rutherford Scattering 100

2.4.8 Total Rutherford Scattering Cross Section 102

2.4.9 Mean Square Scattering Angle for Single Rutherford Scattering 103

2.4.10 Mean Square Scattering Angle for Multiple Rutherford Scattering 105

2.4.11 Importance of the Rutherford Scattering Experiment 106

2.5 Mott Scattering 108

2.5.1 Correction for Electron Spin 109

2.5.2 Correction for Recoil of the Nucleus 111

2.5.3 Differential Cross Section for Mott Scattering of Electrons on Point-Like Atomic Nuclei 114

2.5.4 Hofstadter Correction for Finite Nuclear Size and the Form Factor 114

XXIV Contents

2.6 General Aspects of Elastic Scattering of Charged Particles 116

2.6.1 Differential Scattering Cross Section for a Single Scattering Event 117

2.6.2 Characteristic Scattering Distance 118

2.6.3 Minimum and Maximum Scattering Angles 120

2.6.4 Total Cross Section for a Single Scattering Event 124

2.6.5 Mean Square Scattering Angle for a Single Scattering Event 124

2.7 Moli`ere Multiple Elastic Scattering 126

2.7.1 Mean Square Scattering Angle for Multiple Scattering127

2.7.2 Radiation Length 129

2.7.3 Mass Scattering Power130

2.7.4 Mass Scattering Power for Electrons 130

2.7.5 Fermi-Eyges Pencil Beam Model for Electrons 132

2.7.6 Dose Distribution for Pencil Electron Beam 136

2.7.7 Determination of Electron beam Kinetic Energy from Measured Mass Scattering Power 137

3 Rutherford-Bohr Model of the Atom 139

3.1 Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 140

3.1.1 Radius of the Bohr Atom 141

3.1.2 Velocity of the Bohr Electron 142

3.1.3 Total Energy of the Bohr Electron 142

3.1.4 Transition Frequency and Wave Number 144

3.1.5 Atomic Spectra of Hydrogen 145

3.1.6 Correction for Finite Mass of the Nucleus 145

3.1.7 Positronium, Muonium, and Muonic Atom 147

3.1.8 Quantum Numbers 149

3.1.9 Stern–Gerlach Experiment and Electron Spin 149

3.1.10 Spin–Orbit Coupling 151

3.1.11 Successes and Limitations of the Bohr Model of the Atom 151

3.1.12 Correspondence Principle 152

3.2 Multi-Electron Atom 154

3.2.1 Exclusion Principle 154

3.2.2 Hartree Approximation for Multi-Electron Atoms 155

3.2.3 Periodic Table of Elements 158

3.2.4 Ionization Potential of Atoms 161

3.3 Experimental Confirmation of the Bohr Atomic Model 161

3.3.1 Emission and Absorption Spectra of Monoatomic Gases 163

3.3.2 Moseley Experiment 164

3.3.3 Franck–Hertz Experiment 165

Contents XXV

3.4 Schr¨odinger Equation for Hydrogen Atom 166

3.4.1 Schr¨odinger Equation for Ground State of Hydrogen 168

3.4.2 Sample Calculations for Ground State of Hydrogen 172

4 Production of X Rays 177

4.1 X-Ray Line Spectra 178

4.1.1 Characteristic Radiation 179

4.1.2 Fluorescence Yield and Auger Effect 182

4.2 Emission of Radiation by Accelerated Charged Particle (Bremsstrahlung Production) 185

4.2.1 Stationary Charged Particle: No Emission of Radiation 186

4.2.2 Charged Particle Moving with Uniform Velocity: No Emission of Radiation 186

4.2.3 Accelerated Charged Particle: Emission of Radiation 191

4.2.4 Intensity of Radiation Emitted by Accelerated Charged Particle 192

4.2.5 Power Emitted by Accelerated Charged Particle Through Electromagnetic Radiation (Classical Larmor Relationship) 193

4.2.6 Relativistic Larmor Relationship 195

4.2.7 Relativistic Electric Field Produced by Accelerated Charged Particle 195

4.2.8 Characteristic Angle 196

4.2.9 Electromagnetic Fields Produced by Charged Particles 201

4.3 Synchrotron Radiation 201

4.4 ˇCerenkov Radiation 203

5 Two–Particle Collisions 207

5.1 Collisions of Two Particles: General Aspects 208

5.2 Nuclear Reactions 212

5.2.1 Conservation of Momentum in Nuclear Reaction 213

5.2.2 Conservation of Energy in Nuclear Reaction 213

5.2.3 Threshold Energy for Nuclear Reactions 214

5.3 Two-Particle Elastic Scattering: Energy Transfer 216

5.3.1 General Energy Transfer from Projectile to Target in Elastic Scattering 217

5.3.2 Energy Transfer in a Two-Particle Elastic Head-on Collision 218

5.3.3 Classical Relationships for a Head-on Collision 218

5.3.4 Special Cases for Classical Energy Transfer in a Head-on Collision 219

5.3.5 Relativistic Relationships for a Head-on Collision 221

XXVI Contents

5.3.6 Special Cases for Relativistic Energy Transfer in Head-on Collision 222

5.3.7 Maximum Energy Transfer Fraction in Head-on Collision 223

6 Interactions of Charged Particles with Matter 227

6.1 General Aspects of Energy Transfer from Charged Particle to Medium228

6.1.1 Charged Particle Interaction with Coulomb Field of the Nucleus (Radiation Collision) 229

6.1.2 Hard (Close) Collision 229

6.1.3 Soft (Distant) Collision 230

6.2 General Aspects of Stopping Power 230

6.3 Radiation (Nuclear) Stopping Power 232

6.4 Collision (Electronic) Stopping Power for Heavy Charged Particles 235

6.4.1 Momentum and Energy Transfer from Heavy Charged Particle to Orbital Electron 235

6.4.2 Minimum Energy Transfer and Mean Ionization/Excitation Potential 239

6.4.3 Maximum Energy Transfer 241

6.4.4 Classical Derivation of the Mass Collision Stopping Power 241

6.4.5 Bethe Collision Stopping Power 243

6.4.6 Fano Correction to Bethe Collision Stopping Power Equation251

6.4.7 Collision Stopping Power Equations for Heavy Charged Particles 252

6.5 Collision Stopping Power for Light Charged Particles 254

6.6 Total Mass Stopping Power 256

6.7 Radiation Yield 257

6.8 Range of Charged Particles 259

6.8.1 CSDA Range 261

6.8.2 Maximum Penetration Depth 261

6.8.3 Range of Heavy Charged Particles in Absorbing Medium 261

6.8.4 Range of Light Charged Particles (Electrons

and Positrons) in Absorbers 264

6.9 Mean Stopping Power266

6.10 Restricted Collision Stopping Power 267

6.11 Bremsstrahlung Targets 269

6.11.1 Thin X-Ray Targets 271

6.11.2 Thick X-Ray Targets 272

Contents XXVII

7 Interactions of Photons with Matter 277

7.1 General Aspects of Photon Interactions with Absorbers 278

7.1.1 Narrow Beam Geometry 280

7.1.2 Characteristic Absorber Thicknesses 282

7.1.3 Other Attenuation Coefficients and Cross Sections 284

7.1.4 Energy Transfer Coefficient and Energy Absorption Coefficient 286

7.1.5 Broad Beam Geometry 288

7.1.6 Classification of Photon Interactions with Absorber Atoms 289

7.2 Thomson Scattering 291

7.2.1 Thomson Differential Electronic Cross Section per Unit Solid Angle 292

7.2.2 Thomson Total Electronic Cross Section 294

7.2.3 Thomson Total Atomic Cross Section 296

7.3 Incoherent Scattering (Compton Effect) 297

7.3.1 Compton Wavelength-Shift Equation 297

7.3.2 Relationship Between Scattering Angle and Recoil Angle 301

7.3.3 Scattered Photon Energy as Function of Incident Photon Energy and Photon Scattering Angle 302

7.3.4 Energy Transfer to Compton Recoil Electron 306

7.3.5 Differential Electronic Cross Section for Compton Scattering 309

7.3.6 Differential Electronic Cross Section per Unit Scattering Angle 312

7.3.7 Differential Electronic Cross Section per Unit Recoil Angle 313

7.3.8 Differential Klein–Nishina Energy Transfer Cross Section 315

7.3.9 Energy Distribution of Recoil Electrons 315

7.3.10 Total Electronic Klein–Nishina Cross Section for Compton Scattering 316

7.3.11 Electronic Energy Transfer Cross Section for Compton Effect318

7.3.12 Mean Energy Transfer Fraction for Compton Effect 319

7.3.13 Binding Energy Effects and Corrections 321

7.3.14 Compton Atomic Cross Section and Mass Attenuation Coefficient 327

7.3.15 Compton Mass Energy Transfer Coefficient 329

7.4 Rayleigh Scattering 329

7.4.1 Differential Atomic Cross Section for Rayleigh Scattering330

7.4.2 Form Factor for Rayleigh Scattering 331

7.4.3 Scattering Angles in Rayleigh Scattering 333

XXVIII Contents

7.4.4 Atomic Cross Section for Rayleigh Scattering 334

7.4.5 Mass Attenuation Coefficient for Rayleigh Scattering335

7.5 Photoelectric Effect336

7.5.1 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Photoelectric Effect 336

7.5.2 Angular Distribution of Photoelectrons 338

7.5.3 Atomic Cross Section for Photoelectric Effect 338

7.5.4 Mass Attenuation Coefficient for Photoelectric Effect 341

7.5.5 Energy Transfer to Charged Particles in Photoelectric Effect 341

7.5.6 Photoelectric Probability 343

7.5.7 Fluorescence Yield 347

7.5.8 Mean Fluorescence Photon Energy 348

7.5.9 Mean Fluorescence Emission Energy349

7.5.10 Mean Photoelectric Energy Transfer Fraction 351

7.5.11 Mass Energy Transfer Coefficient for Photoelectric Effect 355

7.6 Pair Production 355

7.6.1 Conservation of Energy, Momentum and Charge in Pair Production 355

7.6.2 Threshold Energy for Nuclear Pair Production and Triplet Production 357

7.6.3 Energy Distribution of Electrons and Positrons in Nuclear Pair Production and Triplet Production 359

7.6.4 Angular Distribution of Charged Particles in Pair Production 361

7.6.5 Nuclear Screening 361

7.6.6 Atomic Cross Section for Pair Production 361

7.6.7 Mass Attenuation Coefficient for Pair Production 363

7.6.8 Energy Transfer to Charged Particles in Nuclear Pair Production and Triplet Production364

7.6.9 Mass Energy Transfer Coefficient for Pair Production 365

7.6.10 Positron Annihilation 367

7.7 Photonuclear Reactions (Photodisintegration) 372

7.7.1 Cross Section for Photonuclear Reaction 373

7.7.2 Threshold Energy for Photonuclear Reaction 374

8 Energy Transfer and Energy Absorption in Photon Interactions with Matter 377

8.1 Macroscopic Attenuation Coefficient 378

8.2 Energy Transfer from Photons to Charged Particles in Absorber 381

8.2.1 General Characteristics of the Mean Energy Transfer Fractions381

Contents XXIX

8.2.2 Relative Weights for Individual Effects 384

8.2.3 Regions of Predominance for Individual Effects 387

8.2.4 Mean Weighted Energy Transfer Fractions 389

8.2.5 Total Mean Energy Transfer Fraction 391

8.2.6 Mass Energy Transfer Coefficient 393

8.2.7 Mean Energy Transferred from Photon to Charged Particles 393

8.3 Energy Absorption 397

8.3.1 Mean Radiation Fraction 397

8.3.2 Total Mean Energy Absorption Fraction 401

8.3.3 Mass Energy Absorption Coefficient 402

8.3.4 Mean Energy Absorbed in Absorbing Medium 402

8.4 Coefficients of Compounds and Mixtures 404

8.5 Effects Following Photon Interactions with Absorber 409

8.6 Summary of Photon Interactions 409

8.6.1 Photoelectric Effect 414

8.6.2 Rayleigh Scattering 415

8.6.3 Compton Effect 415

8.6.4 Pair Production 416

8.6.5 Photonuclear Reactions 417

8.7 Sample Calculations 417

8.7.1 Example 1: Interaction of 2 MeV Photon with Lead Absorber 418

8.7.2 Example 2: Interaction of 8 MeV Photon with Copper Absorber 421

9 Interactions of Neutrons with Matter 429

9.1 General Aspects of Neutron Interactions with Absorbers 430

9.2 Neutron Interactions with Nuclei of the Absorber 431

9.2.1 Elastic Scattering 431

9.2.2 Inelastic Scattering 432

9.2.3 Neutron Capture433

9.2.4 Spallation 433

9.2.5 Nuclear Fission Induced by Neutron Bombardment 434

9.3 Neutron Kerma 434

9.4 Neutron Kerma Factor 435

9.5 Neutron Dose Deposition in Tissue 436

9.5.1 Thermal Neutron Interactions in Tissue 437

9.5.2 Interactions of Intermediate and Fast Neutrons with Tissue 439

9.6 Neutron Beams in Medicine 440

9.6.1 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) 441

9.6.2 Radiotherapy with Fast Neutron Beams 442

XXX Contents

9.6.3 Machines for Production of Clinical Fast Neutron Beams 443

9.6.4 Californium-252 Neutron Source 446

9.6.5 In-vivo Neutron Activation Analysis 447

9.7 Neutron Radiography 448

10 Kinetics of Radioactive Decay 451

10.1 General Aspects of Radioactivity 452

10.2 Decay of Radioactive Parent into a Stable Daughter 454

10.3 Radioactive Series Decay 457

10.3.1 Parent → Daughter → Granddaughter Relationships 458

10.3.2 Characteristic Time 459

10.4 General Form of Daughter Activity 460

10.5 Equilibria in Parent–Daughter Activities 465

10.5.1 Daughter Longer-Lived than Parent 467

10.5.2 Equal Half-Lives of Parent and Daughter 467

10.5.3 Daughter Shorter-Lived than Parent: Transient Equilibrium 467

10.5.4 Daughter much Shorter-Lived than Parent: Secular Equilibrium 468

10.5.5 Conditions for Parent–Daughter Equilibrium 469

10.6 Bateman Equations for Radioactive Decay Chain 470

10.7 Mixture of Two or More Independently Decaying Radionuclides in a Sample 471

10.8 Branching Decay and Branching Fraction 472

11 Modes of Radioactive Decay 475

11.1 Introduction to Radioactive Decay Processes 476

11.2 Alpha Decay478

11.2.1 Decay Energy in Alpha Decay 479

11.2.2 Alpha Decay of Radium-226 into Radon-222 481

11.3 Beta Decay 483

11.3.1 General Aspects of Beta Decay 483

11.3.2 Beta Particle Spectrum 484

11.3.3 Daughter Recoil in Beta Minus and Beta Plus Decay 486

11.4 Beta Minus Decay 487

11.4.1 General Aspects of Beta Minus Decay 487

11.4.2 Beta Minus Decay Energy 488

11.4.3 Beta Minus Decay of Free Neutron into Proton 488

11.4.4 Beta Minus Decay of Cobalt-60 into Nickel-60 490

11.4.5 Beta Minus Decay of Cesium-137 into Barium-137 491

11.5 Beta Plus Decay 492

11.5.1 General Aspects of the Beta Plus Decay 492

11.5.2 Decay Energy in Beta Plus Decay 493

Contents XXXI

11.5.3 Beta Plus Decay of Nitrogen-13 into Carbon-13 494

11.5.4 Beta Plus Decay of Fluorine-18 into Oxygen-18 495

11.6 Electron Capture 496

11.6.1 Decay Energy in Electron Capture 496

11.6.2 Recoil Kinetic Energy of Daughter Nucleus in Electron Capture Decay 497

11.6.3 Electron Capture Decay of Beryllium-7 into Lithium-7 498

11.6.4 Decay of Iridium-192 499

11.7 Gamma Decay 500

11.7.1 General Aspects of Gamma Decay 500

11.7.2 Emission of Gamma Rays in Gamma Decay 501

11.7.3 Gamma Decay Energy 501

11.7.4 Resonance Absorption and M¨ossbauer Effect 502

11.8 Internal Conversion503

11.8.1 General Aspects of Internal Conversion 503

11.8.2 Internal Conversion Factor 504

11.9 Spontaneous Fission 505

11.10 Proton Emission Decay 506

11.10.1 Decay Energy in Proton Emission Decay 506

11.10.2 Example of Proton Emission Decay 508

11.10.3 Example of Two-Proton Emission Decay 508

11.11 Neutron Emission Decay 509

11.11.1 Decay Energy in Neutron Emission Decay 509

11.11.2 Example of Neutron Emission Decay 511

11.12 Chart of the Nuclides (Segr`e Chart) 511

11.13 Summary of Radioactive Decay Modes 517

12 Production of Radionuclides 523

12.1 Origin of Radioactive Elements (Radionuclides) 524

12.2 Naturally-Occuring Radionuclides 524

12.3 Man-Made (Artificial) Radionuclides 526

12.4 Radionuclides in the Environment 527

12.5 General Aspects of Nuclear Activation 527

12.5.1 Nuclear Reaction Cross Section 528

12.5.2 Thin Targets 528

12.5.3 Thick Target 529

12.6 Nuclear Activation with Neutrons (Neutron Activation) 530

12.6.1 Infinite Number of Parent Nuclei: Saturation Model 530

12.6.2 Finite Number of Parent Nuclei: Depletion Model 533

12.6.3 Maximum Attainable Specific Activities in Neutron Activation 539

12.6.4 Examples of Parent Depletion: Neutron Activation of Cobalt-59, Iridium-191, and Molybdenum-98 544

XXXII Contents

12.6.5 Neutron Activation of the Daughter: The Depletion–Activation Model 547

12.6.6 Example of Daughter Neutron Activation: Iridium-192 550

12.6.7 Practical Aspects of Neutron Activation 556

12.7 Nuclear Fission Induced by Neutron Bombardment 557

12.8 Nuclear Chain Reaction 560

12.8.1 Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction 560

12.8.2 Nuclear Reactor 561

12.8.3 Nuclear Power 563

12.8.4 Nuclear Fusion Chain Reaction 564

12.9 Production of Radionuclides with Radionuclide Generator 566

12.9.1 Molybdenum – Technetium Decay Scheme 567

12.9.2 Molybdenum – Technetium Radionuclide Generator 569

12.9.3 Production of Molybdenum-99 Radionuclide 571

12.10 Nuclear Activation with Protons and Heavier Charged Particles 571

12.10.1 Nuclear Reaction Energy and Threshold Energy 573

12.10.2 Targets in Charged Particle Activation 574

13 Waveguide Theory 577

13.1 Microwave Propagation in Uniform Waveguide 578

13.2 Boundary Conditions 580

13.3 Differential Wave Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates 581

13.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields in Uniform Waveguide 588

13.5 General Conditions for Particle Acceleration 589

13.6 Dispersion Relationship 590

13.7 Transverse Magnetic TM01 Mode 595

13.8 Relationship Between Radiofrequency Phase Velocity and Electron Velocity in Uniform Waveguide 596

13.9 Velocity of Energy Flow and Group Velocity 597

13.10 Disk-LoadedWaveguide 599

13.11 Capture Condition 602

14 Particle Accelerators in Medicine 609

14.1 Basic Characteristics of Particle Accelerators 610

14.2 Practical Use of X Rays 611

14.2.1 Medical Physics 611

14.2.2 Industrial Use of X Rays 612

14.2.3 X-Ray Crystallography 612

14.2.4 X-Ray Spectroscopy 613

14.2.5 X-Ray Astronomy 614

14.3 Practical Considerations in Production of X Rays 614

Contents XXXIII

14.4 Traditional Sources of X Rays: X-Ray Tubes 615

14.4.1 Crookes Tube and Crookes X-Ray Tube 617

14.4.2 Coolidge X-Ray Tube 619

14.4.3 Carbon Nanotube Based X-Ray Tube 620

14.5 Circular Accelerators 622

14.5.1 Betatron 622

14.5.2 Cyclotron 625

14.5.3 Microtron 628

14.5.4 Synchrotron 628

14.5.5 Synchrotron Light Source 629

14.6 Clinical Linear Accelerator 630

14.6.1 Linac Generations 630

14.6.2 Components of Modern Linacs 631

14.6.3 Linac Treatment Head 633

14.6.4 Configuration of Modern Linacs635

14.6.5 Pulsed Operation of Linacs 637

14.6.6 Practical Aspects of Megavoltage X-Ray Targets and Flattening Filters 639

Bibliography645

Appendices 647

Main Attributes of Nuclides Presented in this Book 647

Basic Characteristics of the Main Radioactive Decay Modes 651

Short Biographies of Scientists Whose Work is Discussed in This Book 657

Roman Letter Symbols 703

Greek Letter Symbols 713

Acronyms 717

Electronic Databases of Interest in Nuclear and Medical Physics 719

International Organizations 725

Nobel Prizes for Research in X Rays 727

Index 729