Compendium to Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

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This book is intended as a supplementary textbook for a radiation physics course in academic medical physics and biomedical engineering graduate programs as well as a reference book for candidates preparing for certification examinations in medical physics subspecialties. The book may also be of interest to graduate students in physics, chemistry, and various branches of engineering wishing to improve their knowledge and understanding of modern physics and its intimate relationship with radiation physics applied to medicine

1 Introduction to Modern Physics 1

1.1 Fundamental Physical Constants 2

1.2 DerivedPhysicalConstants andRelationships 4

1.3 Milestones in Modern Physics and Medical Physics 6

1.4 Physical Quantities and Units 7

1.5 ClassificationofForces inNature 11

1.6 Classification of Fundamental Particles 13

1.7 ClassificationofRadiation 14

1.8 Classificationof IonizingRadiation 16

1.9 ClassificationofDirectlyIonizingRadiation 17

1.10 Classification of Indirectly Ionizing Photon Radiation 19

1.11 Radiation Quantities and Units 20

1.12 DoseDistributioninWater forVariousRadiationBeams 21

1.13 BasicDefinitions forAtomicStructure 24

1.14 BasicDefinitions forNuclearStructure 27

1.15 NuclearBindingEnergies 28

1.16 Nuclear Models 31

1.17 Physics of Small Dimensions and Large Velocities 32

1.18 Planck Energy Quantization 34

1.19 Quantization of Electromagnetic Radiation 40

1.20 Special Theory of Relativity 43

1.21 ImportantRelativisticRelations 50

1.22 Particle-Wave Duality 69

1.23 MatterWaves 80

1.24 Uncertainty Principle 87

1.25 ComplementarityPrinciple 88

1.26 Emission of Electrons from Material Surface: Work Function 89

1.27 ThermionicEmission 92

1.28 Tunneling 98

1.29 MaxwellEquations 107

1.30 Poynting Theorem and Poynting Vector 110

1.31 Normal Probability Distribution 112

2 Coulomb Scattering 117

2.1 General Aspects of Coulomb Scattering 118

2.2 Geiger-Marsden Experiment 122

2.3 RutherfordScattering 128

2.4 CrossSections forRutherfordScattering 145

2.5 MottScattering 152

2.6 General Aspects of Elastic Scattering of Charged Particles 165

2.7 Molière Multiple Elastic Scattering 171

3 Rutherford–Bohr Atomic Model 177

3.1 Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom 178

3.2 Multi-electron Atoms 208

3.3 Experimental Confirmation of the Bohr Atomic Model 213

3.4 Schrödinger Equation for Hydrogen Atom 222

4 Production of X Rays 225

4.1 X-Ray Line Spectra 226

4.2 Emission of Radiation by Accelerated Charged Particle (Bremsstrahlung Production) 242

4.3 Synchrotron Radiation 256

4.4 ˇCerenkovRadiation 258

5 Two-Particle Collisions 267

5.1 Collisions of Two Particles: General Aspects 268

5.2 NuclearReactions 272

5.3 Two-ParticleElasticScattering:EnergyTransfer 281

6 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter 299

6.1 General Aspects of Energy Transfer from Charged Particle to Medium 300

6.2 General Aspects of Stopping Power 303

6.3 Radiation Stopping Power 306

6.4 Collision (Electronic) Stopping Power for Heavy Charged Particles 309

6.5 Collision Stopping Power for Light Charged Particles 335

6.6 Total Mass Stopping Power 343

6.7 RadiationYield 350

6.8 Range of Charged Particles 356

6.9 Mean Stopping Power 363

6.10 Restricted Collision Stopping Power 367

6.11 BremsstrahlungTargets 376

7 Interaction of Photons with Matter 387

7.1 General Aspects of Photon Interactions with Absorbers 388

7.2 ThomsonScattering 402

7.3 Incoherent Scattering (Compton Effect) 408

7.4 Incoherent (Rayleigh) Scattering 455

7.5 Photoelectric Effect 465

7.6 Pair Production 483

7.7 Photonuclear Reactions 499

8 Energy Transfer and Energy Absorption in Photon Interaction with Matter 515

8.1 Macroscopic Attenuation Coefficient 516

8.2 Energy Transfer from Photons to Charged Particles in Absorber 520

8.3 EnergyTransfer andEnergyAbsorption 532

8.4 Coefficients of Compounds and Mixtures 548

8.5 Effects Following Photon Interactions with Absorber 553

8.6 Summary of Photon Interactions with Absorbers 557

8.7 SampleCalculations 567

9 Interaction of Neutrons with Matter 581

9.1 General Aspects of Neutron Interactions with Absorbers 582

9.2 NeutronInteractionswithNucleiof theAbsorber 589

9.3 NeutronKerma 601

9.4 NeutronKermaFactor 605

9.5 Neutron Dose Deposition in Tissue 611

9.6 NeutronBeams inMedicine 621

10 Kinetics of Radioactive Decay 637

10.1 General Aspects of Radioactivity 638

10.2 Decay of Radioactive Parent into a Stable Daughter 640

10.3 Radioactive Series Decay 646

10.4 General Form of Daughter Activity 663

10.5 Equilibria in Parent-Daughter Activities 666

10.6 Bateman Equations for Radioactive Decay Chain 671

10.7 Mixture of Two or More Independently Decaying Radionuclides inaSample 682

10.8 Branching Decay and Branching Fraction 685

11 Modes of Radioactive Decay 693

11.1 Introduction to Radioactive Decay Processes 694

11.2 Alpha Decay 696

11.3 Beta Decay 703

11.4 Beta Minus Decay 708

11.5 Beta Plus Decay 717

11.6 ElectronCapture 727

11.7 Gamma Decay 737

11.8 InternalConversion 741

11.9 Spontaneous Fission 746

11.10 Proton Emission Decay 748

11.11 Neutron Emission Decay 755

11.12 ChartofNuclides 759

11.13 Summary of Radioactive Decay Modes 773

12 Production of Radionuclides 787

12.1 Origin of Radioactive Elements (Radionuclides) 788

12.2 Naturally Occurring Radionuclides 795

12.3 Man-Made (Artificial) Radionuclides 798

12.4 Radionuclides in the Environment 801

12.5 General Aspects of Nuclear Activation 805

12.6 NuclearActivationwithNeutrons 809

12.7 Nuclear Fission Induced by Neutron Bombardment 890

12.8 NuclearChainReaction 901

12.9 Production of Radionuclides with Radionuclide Generator 914

12.10 Nuclear Activation with Protons and Heavier Charged Particles 931

13 Waveguide Theory 941

13.1 Microwave Propagation in Uniform Waveguide 942

13.2 Boundary Conditions 945

13.3 DifferentialWaveEquation 950

13.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields in Uniform Waveguides 970

13.5 General Conditions for Particle Acceleration 976

13.6 DispersionRelationship 980

13.7 Transverse Magnetic TM01Mode 999

13.8 Acceleration Waveguide Compared to Transmission Waveguide 1008

13.9 Relationship Between Velocity of Energy Flow and Group

VelocityinUniformWaveguide 1014

13.10 Disk-Loaded Waveguide 1023

13.11 Capture Condition 1028

14 Particle Accelerators in Medicine 1041

14.1 Basic Characteristics of Particle Accelerators 1042

14.2 PracticalUseofXRays 1045

14.3 Practical Considerations in Production of X Rays 1048

14.4 Traditional Sources of X Rays 1051

14.5 Circular Accelerators 1061

14.6 Clinical Linear Accelerator 1075

Appendix A Main Attributes of Nuclides Presented in This Book 1101

Appendix B Roman Letter Symbols 1107

Appendix C Greek Letter Symbols 1117

Appendix D Electronic Databases of Interest in Nuclear Physics and

Medical Physics 1121

Bibliography 1127

Index 1129